2013/05/26

解放者か強姦魔か、仏の米軍(第二次大戦)



米兵、仏女性を性的はけ口に=レイプも多発-大戦中の欧州

【ワシントンAFP=時事】第2次世界大戦中、ノルマンディーに上陸しフランスに進撃した米軍兵士の多くが地元女性との性行為に躍起になり、トラブルの種になっていたことを示す研究書が米大学教授によってまとめられ、6月に刊行されることが分かった。ナチス・ドイツからの欧州解放の立役者となった米軍の影の部分に光を当てたものとして注目される。

この本は、米ウィスコンシン大学のメアリー・ロバーツ教授(歴史学)が著した「兵士たちは何をしたのか-第2次大戦時のフランスにおける性と米兵」。米仏両国の資料を分析したもので、同教授によれば、米軍進駐後のフランスでは、公園や廃虚などさまざまな場所で米兵が性行為を行っている姿が見られた。レイプも多発し、数百件が報告された。米兵による買春もあった。

フランス女性たちは既婚者でも米兵にしつこく誘われ、ある住民は「ドイツ占領中は男たちが隠れなければならなかったが、米兵が来た後は女性を隠さねばならない」と言っていたという。

当時のある市長は駐留米軍幹部に苦情を寄せたが、問題は改善しなかった。

時事 2013.5.26 (魚拓

The Dark Side of Liberation

The soldiers who landed in Normandy on D-Day were greeted as liberators, but by the time American G.I.’s were headed back home in late 1945, many French citizens viewed them in a very different light.

In the port city of Le Havre, the mayor was bombarded with letters from angry residents complaining about drunkenness, jeep accidents, sexual assault — “a regime of terror,” as one put it, “imposed by bandits in uniform.”

This isn’t the “greatest generation” as it has come to be depicted in popular histories. But in “What Soldiers Do: Sex and the American G.I. in World War II France,” the historian Mary Louise Roberts draws on French archives, American military records, wartime propaganda and other sources to advance a provocative argument: The liberation of France was “sold” to soldiers not as a battle for freedom but as an erotic adventure among oversexed Frenchwomen, stirring up a “tsunami of male lust” that a battered and mistrustful population often saw as a second assault on its sovereignty and dignity.

“I could not believe what I was reading,” Ms. Roberts, a professor of French history at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, recalled of the moment she came across the citizen complaints in an obscure archive in Le Havre. “I took out my little camera and began photographing the pages. I did not go to the bathroom for eight hours.”

“What Soldiers Do,” to be officially published next month by the University of Chicago Press, arrives just as sexual misbehavior inside the military is high on the national agenda, thanks to a recent Pentagon report estimating that some 26,000 service members had been sexually assaulted in 2012, more than a one-third increase since 2010.

While Ms. Roberts’s arguments may be a hard sell to readers used to more purely heroic narratives, her book is winning praise from some scholarly colleagues.“Our culture has embalmed World War II as ‘the good war,’ and we don’t revisit the corpse very often,” said David M. Kennedy, a historian at Stanford University and the author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning book “Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945.”

“What Soldiers Do,” he added, is “a breath of fresh air,” providing less of an “aha” than, as he put it, an “of course.”

Ms. Roberts, whose parents met in 1944 when her father was training as a naval officer, emphasizes that American soldiers’ heroism and sacrifice were very real, and inspired genuine gratitude. But French sources, she argues, also reveal deep ambivalence on the part of the liberated.

“Struggles between American and French officials over sex,” she writes, “rekindled the unresolved question of who exactly was in charge.”

Sex was certainly on the liberators’ minds. The book cites military propaganda and press accounts depicting France as “a tremendous brothel inhabited by 40 million hedonists,” as Life magazine put it. (Sample sentences from a French phrase guide in the newspaper Stars and Stripes: “You are very pretty” and “Are your parents at home?”)

On the ground, however, the grateful kisses captured by photojournalists gave way to something less picturesque. In the National Archives in College Park, Md., Ms. Roberts found evidence — including one blurry, curling snapshot — supporting long-circulating colorful anecdotes about the Blue and Gray Corral, a brothel set up near the village of St. Renan in September 1944 by Maj. Gen. Charles H. Gerhardt, commander of the infantry division that landed at Omaha Beach, partly to counter a wave of rape accusations against G.I.’s. (It was shut down after a mere five hours.)

In France, Ms. Roberts also found a desperate letter from the mayor of Le Havre in August 1945 urging American commanders to set up brothels outside the city, to halt the “scenes contrary to decency” that overran the streets, day and night. They refused, partly, Ms. Roberts argues, out of concern that condoning prostitution would look bad to “American mothers and sweethearts,” as one soldier put it.

Keeping G.I. sex hidden from the home front, she writes, ensured that it would be on full public view in France: a “two-sided attitude,” she said, that is reflected in the current military sexual abuse crisis.

Ms. Roberts is not the first scholar to bring the sexual side of World War II into clearer view. The 1990s brought a surge of scholarship on the Soviet Army’s mass rapes on the Eastern front, fed partly by the international campaign to have rape recognized as a war crime after the conflict in the former Yugoslavia. At the same time, gender historians began taking a closer look at “fraternization” by American soldiers, with particular attention to what women thought they were getting out of the bargain.

“The standard story had been that the Soviets were the rapists, the Americans were the fraternizers, and the British were the gentlemen,” said Atina Grossmann, the author of “Jews, Germans and Allies: Close Encounters in Occupied Germany.”

Work that looked at sexual assaults by American soldiers, even on a small scale, remained controversial. J. Robert Lilly’s “Taken by Force,” a groundbreaking study of rapes of French, German and British civilian women by G.I.’s, based on courts-martial records Mr. Lilly uncovered, drew a strong response when it was published in France in 2003. But the book, which emphasized the grossly disproportionate prosecution of black soldiers, struggled to find an American publisher amid tensions between the United States and Europe over Iraq.

“American presses wouldn’t touch the subject with a 10-foot barge pole,” said Mr. Lilly, a sociology professor at Northern Kentucky University. (Palgrave Macmillan published his book in the United States in 2007.)

Today the seamier side of liberation is not entirely absent from popular accounts. “The Guns at Last Light: The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945,” the final volume of Rick Atkinson’s best-selling trilogy about the war, published this month, includes a brief discussion of the Army’s campaign against venereal disease (“Don’t forget the Krauts were fooling around France a long time before we got here,” an Army publication warned soldiers in December 1944), as well as a reference to Mr. Lilly’s work.

The few scholars who have looked more closely at rape by G.I.’s have attributed its racially skewed prosecution to “the Jim Crow army,” which was happy to depict rape as a problem only among the noncombat support units to which black soldiers were mostly limited.

“White soldiers got a pass because of their combat status,” said William I. Hitchcock, author of “The Bitter Road to Freedom” (2008), a history of the liberation of Western Europe from the perspective of often traumatized local civilians. “The Army wasn’t interested in prosecuting a battle-scarred sergeant.”

Ms. Roberts, who closely studied transcripts of 15 courts-martial in Northern France, certainly sees American racism at work. “Let’s Look at Rape!,” a 1944 Army pamphlet credited to “a Negro Chaplain,” contained a prominent illustration of a noose — a clear suggestion that the Army was going to “protect the color line,” she writes. (Among the soldiers hanged for rape and murder was Louis Till, the father of Emmett Till.)

But her analysis is hardly more flattering to the French, whose often shaky accusations, as she sees them, reflected their own need to project the humiliations of occupation onto a racial “other.” (“We have no more soldiers here, just a few Negroes who terrorize the neighborhood,” one civilian remarked in April 1945.)

Ms. Roberts said the book has attracted strong interest from French publishers, where willingness to explore the darker side of liberation jostles with a lingering fear of seeming ungrateful. At home, she insisted, her goal is not “to sour the story of Normandy.”

“I truly believe what we did there was amazing,” she said. “But I’m interested in providing a richer and more realistic picture.”

ニューヨーク・タイムズ 2013.5.20 (魚拓

8 件のコメント:

  1. 柔道の練習中に起きた事故に対する学校の責任を例にして話せば、アメリカ兵の買春は、町道場で起きた事故で学校に責任がないのははっきりしているのに対し、日本軍の慰安婦制度は、学校のクラブ活動中の事故のようなもので、学校には一定の監督責任があることは否定できない、そんな違いが両者にはあるように思います。(あくまで印象ですが、、、。)


    狭義の強制は無かったという主張は、学校の正規の授業中の事故ではなかったから、学校の責任の程度はそれほど大きくないと言っているのと似ているように思います。

    一方、アメリカ兵の買春と慰安婦制度を同類のものとして捉えるのは、柔道に事故はつきもの、クラブ活動だけを責めるなと言っているのと似ているように思います。

    大半のアメリカ人は、アメリカ兵の買春は個人の自由意志の範囲で、慰安婦制度は組織的な行為として、整理しているので、アメリカ兵の買春の事例を挙げてもアメリカ人の理解は得られないと思いますが、、、。



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    1. まず、これは軍隊(兵士)の性の話題であって、慰安所や慰安婦の話題からは少し外れます。NYTの記事も、特段に米軍を非道と非難しているのではなく、英雄とされる彼らにもこんな負の一面があったという指摘です(エントリーのタイトルも悪かったですね)。

      >柔道の練習中に起きた事故に対する学校の責任を例に

      この例えは正しいと思います。一方、こういう例えも可能ではないでしょうか。

      一方に、子供の食事の世話からオムツの換えまで一人でこなすお母さん(日本)がいる。もう一人(米国)は子育てを乳母に任せっきり。子供が病気になった時、一方は親が責められ、片方は乳母が責められ親は知らん顔。これはオカシイと思います。しかも子育てを放棄していた親が、自分の乳で子供を育てた親を責めるとあっては・・・。

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    2. 兵隊に女をあてがうのと赤ん坊にミルクをやるのを一緒にするのは、ちょっと無理があるような気がしますが、、、、。

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    3. オムツを替えたり夜泣きする赤ん坊をあやしたりしていれば、時に保護者としての不手際もあるでしょう。カッとなって叩いてしまったとか。育児は理想論通りにはいかない、というのは育児を経験した母親なら誰だって実感するのではないでしょうか。だからといって児童虐待が許されるものではありませんが、子供を乳母に任せ、その乳母が子供を虐待していたとするなら、育児放棄した親が他人を非難できるだろうか、という話です。

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  2. 戦後日本に慰安所作らせたり、朝鮮戦争で一般市民拉致して、共産党協力者の名の下慰安婦として働かせたことは、むしろもっと非道なのでは?
    アメリカも都合の悪いことは直ぐにごまかすからです。
    まあ、アメリカ人自体非常識だし、歴史の知識は全くないといっていい。

    米軍は募兵製になってから、教育を受けられない人間の雇用吸収の場になっているので、軍規はさらに低下していて、年間数千件の性的な問題を起こしている。それに、買春も違反行為なので、本音は別として言い訳に過ぎませんけどね。

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    1. 第二次大戦中の米軍が、その他の国々と比べてマナーが悪かったとは思っていません。ただ、昨日の新報道2001で西尾教授が言っていたように、日本の女性に迷惑をかけるぐらいだったら、日本軍のように自国から娼婦を連れて来なさい!という考えもありなのかな、と。

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    2. 湾岸戦争の頃は徴兵制で、国民の義務でもあったし、国民が共感を持っていた。ちょうどアメリカにいたのですが家の角などに黄色いリボンが見かけられ、出征した家族や友人の無事を祈っていました。
      その後の募兵製以降、国内の工兵隊募集だと騙して、訓練が始まれば徹底しためいれいい服従で洗脳し、アフガンやイラクに送られるということが横行している。女性兵士のを慰安婦代わりにする上司をけん制する機能がない。というわけで、どうがんばっても
      米軍のモラルが向上するとは思えない。

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    3. 志願兵募集でトラブルもあったようですね。

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